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News on Operation Enduring Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom - official DOD and Army news, and news from CNN

Saddam Hussein was executed by hanging - december 30, 2006

Iraq  new!
Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq became an independent kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958,
but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn.
Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait,
but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation,
the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow
UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions during the past 12 years resulted in the US-led invasion
of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore degraded infrastructure
and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government.
Government type: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Key people in reconstructing Iraq are Ramiro Lopes da Silva, UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq, and Ambassador L. Paul Bremer,
head of the US-run Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, Iraq National Congress leader Ahmad Chalabi and SCIRI's leader
Ayatollah al-Hakim.
Thursday May 22, 2003 the United Nations approved of a Security Council Resolution (Resolution 1483) drafted by the US,
to install a American-Britain temporary government in Iraq.
Capital: Baghdad
Administrative divisions: 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim,
Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Constitution: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Legal system: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Suffrage: formerly 18 years of age; universal; in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Executive branch: chief of state: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Legislative branch: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Judicial branch: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Political parties and leaders: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC (now CEB), AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EAPC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Diplomatic representation from the US: in transition following April 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
This information was derived from the World Factbook from the CIA, the United Nations, and the CNN website.The links are from me.
Further information on the history of Iraq can be found at: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Iraq.htm

  • CNN - Interactive Pentagon's Deck of most wanted Iraqis   new!
    On each card the status of the individual (dead or in custody, etc.) is listed
  • Most-wanted Iraqis: 18 remain at large - news from CNN, July 23, 2003   new!
  • News 24 June : six soldiers killed in Iraq - There were two incidents near Al Amarah on 24 June resulting in British casualties.
  • Seven American POWs Returned to U.S. Control - By Jim Garamone, American Forces Press Service
    WASHINGTON, April 13, 2003
  • The Deck of Cards - Personality Identification Playing Cards
  • Iraqi Top 55 List - HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES CENTRAL COMMAND
  • CNN News - War Tracker: Latest briefing of cities under control of the coalition forces, and the ground war
  • US Army news - Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • USA Defenselink - DOD - official news releases on OPIF
  • UK Forces in Iraq - news and information
    UK military operations against Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq are being conducted under the name of Operation Telic.
  • Australia - Operation Falconer: Disarmament of Iraq


    US Government organisations

  • Pentagon website
  • US Army - news on the attacks and Operation Enduring Freedom
  • FBI
  • CIA
  • Whitehouse.gov: Defense policy of the US


    International organisations

  • NATO - NAVO
    SHAPE News: NATO launches Response Force, 15 October 2003   new!
    NATO Issues: The NATO Response Force - At the center of NATO transformation   new!
  • United Nations
  • UN - List of Member States
  • United Nations News Service
  • UN Security Council Resolutions 2003
  • UN Security Council Resolutions 2002
    Includes Security Council resolution 1441


    World news (media)

  • CNN - news on Operation Enduring Freedom
  • Al Jazeera - website
  • Stratfor.com - Get unbiased analyses, situation reports, 24/7 monitoring and tools for understanding the pending U.S.-Iraq War from Stratfor
    Signing up costs $49.95 for twelve (12) months.


    US Military news

  • Defendamerica.mil - news from the US Department of Defense on Operation Enduring Freedom
  • Military.com - in depth news on the war against terrorism
  • Worldwide P-3 Orion News Service


    Military troops deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom

  • US Troops deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom
    list of Active Duty personnel who have been deployed (October 22, 2001)
  • UK Forces participating in Operation Telic (first announced on 20 January 2003, updated by the British Ministry of Defence 27 January and 6 February)
    P.S.: UK military contingency preparations in relation to Iraq are being conducted under the name of Operation Telic.
  • UK Forces participating in Operation Veritas (Updated 1 August)
  • International Security Assistance Force - Operation Fingal
    Nineteen countries are contributing troops to the UK-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the new Afghan Interim Authority with the provision of security and stability in Kabul.


    Government news - Department of Defense - worldwide

  • England - News on Operation Veritas
  • The Netherlands - News on Operation Enduring Freedom (Dutch)
  • German Department of Defense - news on Operation Enduring Freedom (in German)
  • Spain: Department of Foreign Affairs (in Spanish)
  • Tsjech Government website (in Tsjech language)
  • Poland: Government website (in English as well)
  • Canada: Department of National Defense
  • France: Department of Defense (in English as well)
  • France: dossier on Afghanistan
  • Italy: Department of Foreign Affairs
  • Australia: news on Operation Enduring Freedom
  • New Zealand: Ministry of Defence
  • Turkey: Ministry of National Defence
  • Indonesia - Department of Defence (Departemen Pertahanan)
  • Japan ( Nippon ) - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Jordan ( Urdunn ) - Royal Jordanian Air Force


    Information on Afghanistan

    Afghanistan
    Background: Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban. Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002, and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines.
    Government type: transitional
    Capital: Kabul
    Administrative divisions: 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol
    Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
    National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
    Constitution: the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1963/64 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement
    Legal system: the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions
    Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age
    Executive branch: note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001 a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA) after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002 when the Loya Jirga (grand assembly) convened establishing the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) which has an 18-month mandate to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide elections chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamad KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government
    head of government: President of the TISA, Hamad KARZAI (since 10 June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government cabinet: the 30-member TISA
    elections: NA
    Legislative branch: nonfunctioning as of June 1993
    Judicial branch: the Bonn Agreement calls for the establishment of a Supreme Court
    Political parties and leaders: NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid Karzai; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several "independent" groups
    Political pressure groups and leaders: NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora members, and former political leaders
    International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC (suspended), IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: ambassador Ishaq SHAHRYAR
    chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    FAX: 202-483-6487
    consulate(s) general: New York
    telephone: 202-483-6410
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001 following closure in January 1989
    embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul
    mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
    telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154
    FAX: 00932290153
    United Nations - AGREEMENT ON PROVISIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN AFGHANISTAN PENDING THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMANENT GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
    Military - note: INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ASSISTANCE FORCE - Operation Fingal
    Nineteen countries are contributing troops to the UK-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the new Afghan Interim Authority with the provision of security and stability in Kabul.
    Military branches: NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement calls for all militia forces to come under Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) control, but formation of a national army is likely to be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized largely along ethnic lines
    Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age (2002 est.)
    Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,896,623 (2002 est.)
    Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,696,379 (2002 est.)
    Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 252,869 (2002 est.)
    Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
    Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%
    Transnational Issues
    Disputes - international: close ties with Pashtuns in Pakistan make long border difficult to control Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy - used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 tons; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
    This information was derived from the CIA World Factbook. The links are from me.
    Further information on the history of Afghanistan can be found at: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Afghanistan.htm.



    Additional links:
  • RAWA - the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan
  • National Geographic Channel - articles on Afghanistan


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